In the Name of the Salish & Kootenai Nation: The 1855 Hell Gate Treaty and the Origin of the Flathead Indian Reservation

$15.00 each


Reproduces the complete text of the Hell Gate Treaty and supporting documents, including official proceedings of the treaty council.


On July 16, 1855, eighteen leaders of the Flathead, Kootenai and Upper Pend d’Oreilles Indians signed an agreement with the United States government, ceding their title to almost all of the land in Western Montana and establishing the Flathead Indian Reservation. Born of confusion and disagreement, the Hell Gate Treaty is the legal basis for the modern relationship between the tribes and the federal government.

In the Name of the Salish & Kootenai Nation reproduces the complete text of the Hell Gate Treaty and collects previously published documents relating to the treaty. Among these documents are the official proceedings of the treaty council, Gustavus Sohon’s portraits of many of the treaty signers, and letters from the Jesuit priest Adrian Hoecken, who was present at the treaty deliberations. These documents are presented in the hope that they will inspire further questions and research.

Robert Bigart is Librarian Emeritus at Salish Kootenai College, Pablo, Montana. Clarence Woodcock was the Director of the Flathead Culture Committee, St. Ignatius, Montana, until 1995.




Editors: Robert Bigart and Clarence Woodcock

Illustrations: Black and white illustrations

Binding Availability: Paperback

Published: 1996

Tribes/Ethnic Groups: Flathead, Kootenai, Pend d’Oreilles